Chaturanga or Chess (Shatranj)

According to Wiki,” Chaturanga or Chess is a brain game it is developed in the Gupta Empire, India around the 6th century AD.
In Sanskrit language caturaṅga is a bahuvrihi compound, that means “having four limbs or parts” and in epic poetry often meaning “army”.
according to Asiatic research,” Chaturanga game consists, Elephants, horse, chariots and foot soldiers.”
The name comes from a battle formation mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata, referring to four divisions of an army, namely elephants, chariots, cavalry, and infantry.
An ancient battle formation, akshauhini, is like the setup of chaturanga.
Harshavardhana was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE. He was a member of the Pushyabhuti dynasty and was the son of Prabhakarvardhana.

Chaturanga pieces
Raja (king):   moves one step in any direction (vertical, horizontal or diagonal), the same as the king in chess. There is no castling in chaturanga.

Queen, Mantri or Senapati, (counselor ,Senapati or general; ancestor of ferz; ):   Moves one step diagonally in any direction, like the fers in shatranj.

Ratha (Chariot; Rook,Śakata):  Moves the same as a rook in chess- whereby the rook moves horizontally or vertically, through any number of unoccupied squares.

Gaja (elephant; later called fil; early form of bishop,Hathi,Gajah):   Three different moves are described in ancient literature:

Ashva (horse; knight)

Padàti or Bhata (foot-soldier or infantry; pawn)”. 🙂




Author: King Pan

King Pan, is the history of Panwar's. They are Indian Hindu. They speak Hindi and Rajasthani languages.

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